Facts about Belemnites, an extinct prehistoric animal

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Dinosaur Jungle   >   Other Prehistoric Animals   >   Belemnites

Belemnites



Belemnite
Click here for more Belemnite Pictures

Scientific Classification
  Kingdom Animalia
  Phylum Mollusca
  Class Cephalopoda
  Subclass Coleoidea
  (unranked) Cohort Belemnoidea
Belemnites are an extinct group (there are actually several different Orders of Belemnites) of cephalopod molluscs. They first appeared in the Devonian period about 416 million years ago, were particularly abundant during the Mesozoic Era, especially during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, but went extinct during the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction.

Belemnites are believed have been similar to modern squid, and were related to cuttlefish. They had ten arms of approximately equal length, which were apparently equipped with hooks for grabbing prey, and also an ink sac. They also had an internal chambered shell (known as the "guard" or "rostrum") which was enclosed by muscular tissue.

Fossils of Belemnites are common, so much so that they are sometimes used as "index fossils" (Fossils used to determine the relative date of rocks), particularly in the case of Cretaceous period chalk formations). However, although occasionally fossils have been found showing soft-tissue, normally only the shell of the animal is preserved, and this of course represents a tiny fraction of the total animal. The smallest shells are less than ½ inch (about 1 centimeter) in length, but the largest found are around 18 inches (46 centimeters) in length - suggesting the largest Belemnites were probably around 10 feet (3 meters) in size.

Today, a type of Belemnite, Belemnitella Americana is the State Fossil of the US state of Delaware.

Belemnite
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Belemnites Timeline:



Belemnites were cephalopod molluscs that lived in the seas between 416 and 65 million years ago

Belemnites were cephalopod molluscs that lived in the seas between 416 and 65 million years ago


Related Information & Resources


See Also

Belemnite Books


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Squid Empire: The Rise and Fall of the Cephalopods
By Danna Staaf

ForeEdge
Hardcover (256 pages)

Squid Empire: The Rise and Fall of the Cephalopods
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Before there were mammals on land, there were dinosaurs. And before there were fish in the sea, there were cephalopods―the ancestors of modern squid and Earth’s first truly substantial animals. Cephalopods became the first creatures to rise from the seafloor, essentially inventing the act of swimming. With dozens of tentacles and formidable shells, they presided over an undersea empire for millions of years. But when fish evolved jaws, the ocean’s former top predator became its most delicious snack. Cephalopods had to step up their game. Many species streamlined their shells and added defensive spines, but these enhancements only provided a brief advantage. Some cephalopods then abandoned the shell entirely, which opened the gates to a flood of evolutionary innovations: masterful camouflage, fin-supplemented jet propulsion, perhaps even dolphin-like intelligence. Squid Empire is an epic adventure spanning hundreds of millions of years, from the marine life of the primordial ocean to the calamari on tonight’s menu. Anyone who enjoys the undersea world―along with all those obsessed with things prehistoric―will be interested in the sometimes enormous, often bizarre creatures that ruled the seas long before the first dinosaurs.
Coniacian and Santonian belemnite faunas from Bornholm, Denmark / Santonian to Maastrichtian Ammonites from Scania, southern Sweden (Fossils and Strata Monograph Series)
By Walter Kegel Christensen & William James Kennedy

Brand: Wiley-Blackwell
Paperback (128 pages)

Coniacian and Santonian belemnite faunas from Bornholm, Denmark / Santonian to Maastrichtian Ammonites from Scania, southern Sweden (Fossils and Strata Monograph Series)
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Product Description:

The definitive guide to the belemnites of the island of Bornholm, Denmark

Fossils and Strata, Number 44 covers Coniacian and Santonian Belemnite faunas from Bornholm and Santonian to Maastrichtian ammonites from Scania. Starting off with a brief introduction and overview of the geological setting of the island, the book moves quickly into the details. It covers the Arnager limestone formation, the Bavnodde greensand formation, coverage of the Coniacian and Santonian ammonite and inoceramid stratigraphy, an overview of palaeobiogeography and evolutionary trends, systematic palaeontology, and related topics.

Ordre naturel des oursins de mer et fossiles, avec des observations sur les piquans des oursins de mer, et quelques remarques sur les bélemnites. Par M. Theodore Klein... Avec figures, augmentées de s
By Jacob Theodor, -,Aubert de La Chesnaye-Desbois, François-Alexandre, - Klein

Generic
Leather Bound (314 pages)

Ordre naturel des oursins de mer et fossiles, avec des observations sur les piquans des oursins de mer, et quelques remarques sur les bélemnites. Par M. Theodore Klein... Avec figures, augmentées de s
 
Product Description:
Leather Binding on Spine and Corners with Golden Leaf Printing on round Spine (extra customization on request like complete leather, Golden Screen printing in Front, Color Leather, Colored book etc.) Reprinted in 2019 with the help of original edition published long back [1754]. This book is printed in black & white, sewing binding for longer life, Printed on high quality Paper, re-sized as per Current standards, professionally processed without changing its contents. As these are old books, we processed each page manually and make them readable but in some cases some pages which are blur or missing or black spots. If it is multi volume set, then it is only single volume, if you wish to order a specific or all the volumes you may contact us. We expect that you will understand our compulsion in these books. We found this book important for the readers who want to know more about our old treasure so we brought it back to the shelves. Hope you will like it and give your comments and suggestions. Lang: - fre,lat, Pages 314. EXTRA 10 DAYS APART FROM THE NORMAL SHIPPING PERIOD WILL BE REQUIRED FOR LEATHER BOUND BOOKS. COMPLETE LEATHER WILL COST YOU EXTRA US$ 25 APART FROM THE LEATHER BOUND BOOKS.
La Zone À Belemnites Plenus. Etude Sur Le Cénomanien Et Le Turonien Du Bassin De Paris... (French Edition)
By Charles Barrois

Wentworth Press
Hardcover (54 pages)

La Zone À Belemnites Plenus. Etude Sur Le Cénomanien Et Le Turonien Du Bassin De Paris... (French Edition)
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This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work.

This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work.

As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.

La Zone À Belemnites Plenus. Etude Sur Le Cénomanien Et Le Turonien Du Bassin De Paris... (French Edition)
By Charles Barrois

Wentworth Press
Paperback (54 pages)

La Zone À Belemnites Plenus. Etude Sur Le Cénomanien Et Le Turonien Du Bassin De Paris... (French Edition)
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Product Description:

This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work.

This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work.

As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.

Upper Cretaceous belemnites from the Kristianstad area in Scania (Fossils and strata)
By Walter Kegel Christensen

Universitetsforlaget
Paperback (69 pages)

Upper Cretaceous belemnites from the Kristianstad area in Scania (Fossils and strata)
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Ordre Naturel Des Oursins de Mer Et Fossiles, Avec Des Observations Sur Les Piquans Des Oursins de Mer, Et Quelques Remarques Sur Les Belemnites. Par ... Sont Dans Le Cabinet de... (French Edition)
By Jacob Theodor 1685-1759 Klein

Wentworth Press
Paperback (316 pages)

Ordre Naturel Des Oursins de Mer Et Fossiles, Avec Des Observations Sur Les Piquans Des Oursins de Mer, Et Quelques Remarques Sur Les Belemnites. Par ... Sont Dans Le Cabinet de... (French Edition)
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Product Description:

This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work.

This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work.

As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.

Belemnites: Belemnites: Fossil Focus Guide (Earthwise Discovering Geology Guidecards)
By Beris M. Cox

British Geological Survey
Pamphlet
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A monograph of British Cretaceous belemnites
By H. H Swinnerton

Printed for the Palaeontographical Society
Unknown Binding (86 pages)
 
Scripta Geologica 114: Mediterranean Neocambrian Belemnites, Part I: Rio Argos Sequence (Province of Murcia, Spain): The Berriasian-Valanginian and the Hauterivian-Barremian Boundaries; New and Less Known Barremian-Albian Ammonites from Columbia
By Nico M.M., Kakabadze, Mikhail V., Hoedemaeker, Philip J. Janssen

Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum
Paperback
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